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The notion of biodiversity refers to the diversity of all living beings and ecosystems. It includes diversity within and between species, the diversity of ecosystems and the interactions between living organisms. Preserving these interrelationships is fundamental to the preservation of species and their habitats, as well as to the proper ecological functioning of ecosystems.

The erosion of global biodiversity is not a new phenomenon. Indeed, the Earth has experienced several phases of mass species extinctions. However, the current loss is not the result of natural processes, as was the case in the past, since it is due to the development of human activity.